If you bought a house 10 years ago for USD 100k and only just sold it for USD 150k you could say that you have made a 50k profit (not taking into account inflation, opportunity cost etc).
However if the house next door, exactly the same, sold 2 days earlier for USD 200k would you still think you have made a profit?
I am using the word profit liberally in the explanation. And this is the same with voyage calculations. In a voyage calculation the shipowners is not attempting to find the 'profit' figure against all his costs. He is looking to find the profit figure against the 'Market'.
The market represented by the the 'Timecharter IN' figure he or she uses in the calculation.
So in the case of the house - against the market the guy looks to have made a usd 50k loss.
(NB in a voyage calculation we have a final profit or loss figure. This can also be represented with a surplus or deficit figure. Same thing!)
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